a compilation of informations, researches, studies , observations and analysis about autism to help in early intervention.

Friday, January 21, 2005

Symptoms of Autism

The symptoms vary greatly but follow a general pattern. Not all symptoms are present in all autistic children.

Autistic infants may act relatively normal during their first few months of life before becoming less responsive to their parents and other stimuli. They may have difficulty with feeding or toilet training; may not smile in recognition of their parents' faces, and may put up resistance to being cuddled.

As they enter toddlerhood, it becomes increasingly apparent that these children have a world of their own. They do not play with other children or toys in the normal manner, rather they remain aloof and prefer to play alone.

Verbal and nonverbal communication skills, such as speech and facial expressions, develop peculiarly. Symptoms range from mutism to prolonged use of echoing or stilted language. When language is present, it is often concrete, unimaginative, and immature.

Another symptom of autism is an extreme resistance to change of any kind. Autistic children tend to want to maintain established behavior patterns and a set environment. They develop rituals in play, oppose change (such as moving furniture), and may become obsessed with one particular topic.

Other behavioral abnormalities that may be present are: staring at hands or flapping arms and hands, walking on tiptoe, rocking, tantrums, strange postures, unpredictable behavior and hyperactivity.

An autistic child has poor judgment and is therefore always at risk for danger. For instance, an autistic child may run into a busy street without any sign of fear.


Thursday, January 20, 2005

What is autism?

Autism is a complex developmental disorder that typically affects a person's ability to
communicate, form relationships, and respond appropriately to the environment. Autism results from a neurological disorder that impedes normal brain development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills.

Autism knows no racial, ethnic, social, or economic boundaries, and the overall incidence rate is
relatively consistent around the globe. There is no definitive cause or cure for this lifelong
disorder, which affects four times as many boys as girls and usually manifests itself during the
first three years of life.

Often referred to as a "spectrum disorder," the symptoms and characteristics of autism can
present themselves in a variety of combinations, to varying degrees of severity, from mild to
severe. The phrase “autism spectrum disorders” (ASD) refers to a broad definition of autism
including Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), Rett's syndrome, Asperger syndrome, and
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

People with autism process and respond to information in unique ways. Common traits of autism include:

• Resistance to change
• Odd repetitive motions
• Preference for being alone
• Aversion to cuddling
• Avoidance of eye contact
• Inappropriate attachments to objects
• Hyper-activity or under-activity
• Over- or under-active sensory responsiveness
• Uneven gross/fine motor skills, such as difficulty grasping objects, or
dressing themselves
• Repeating words or monologues
• Laughing, crying, or showing distress for unapparent reasons
• Unresponsive to verbal cues
• Tantrums, and possible aggressive and/or self-injurious behaviour

Like all individuals, however, those with autism have unique personalities and combinations of
autistic characteristics. Many children and adults with autism have or develop the ability to make eye contact, show affection, smile, laugh, and build verbal or non-verbal language skills, but generally in different ways than typically-developing individuals.

Since autism was first described more than 60 years ago, the body of related knowledge has
grown substantially. However, a vast majority of the public, including many medical and
educational professionals, is still unaware of how autism affects people and how to effectively
support and interact with affected individuals.

While it isn’t possible to “outgrow” or to be “cured” of autism, symptoms can be lessened and
skills can be acquired with treatment and support. Geneva Centre for Autism provides just that – and in doing so, gives hope to thousands of families in need.